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Работа №3 по английскому языку (начинающая группа): Для студентов заочной и заочной - страница №1/1



КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 3

по английскому языку

(начинающая группа)

Для студентов заочной и заочной с УПВПО форм обучения

экономического и юридического факультетов

Москва

Институт международного права и экономики имени А.С. Грибоедова

2008

УТВЕРЖДЕНО

кафедрой иностранных языков

С о с т а в и т е л и: В.В. Ежова,



Н.Е. Солдатова

Контрольная работа № 3 по английскому языку (начинающая группа): Для студентов заочной и заочной с УПВПО форм обучения экономического и юридического факультетов. – М.: ИМПЭ им. А. С. Грибоедова, 2008. – 23 с.

Подготовлена на кафедре иностранных языков.

© Ежова В.В., Солдатова Н.Е., 2008

Контрольная работа по английскому языку № 3 имеет целью проверить и закрепить базовые знания по грамматическому и лексическому материалу, предназначенному для изучения в III семестре.

Работа состоит из следующих разделов:


  1. Первый раздел, который включает:

    1. сравнительный обзор грамматических времен the Simple и the Simple Progressive (Present, Past and Future);

    2. употребление времен Present Perfect и Past Simple;

    3. модальные глаголы can (could) may (might) must;

    4. употребление временных наречий already, yet, still и just;

    5. употребление неопределенных наречий some & any и наречий many, much, (a) few, (a) little.

  2. Второй раздел включает тексты по экономической тематике.

  3. Третий раздел – тексты по юридической тематике.

Тексты предназначены для чтения, перевода (устного и письменного) и обсуждения с преподавателем.

При работе над текстами следует обратить внимание на экономическую и юридическую терминологию и выучить ее.


Раздел I



THE SIMPLE PROGRESSIVE & PRESENT SIMPLE



Упражнение 1. Выберите нужную форму глагола в скобках (Present Progressive or Simple Present)




  1. Vegetarians are people who (don’t eat/are not eating) meat.

………………………………………………………………

  1. Look out! My husband (comes/is coming).

………………………………………………………………

  1. Some people still think the sun (goes/is going) round the earth.

………………………………………………………………

  1. I (play/am playing) tennis every weekend.

………………………………………………………………

  1. Who (sits/is sitting) in my chair?

………………………………………………………………

  1. An alcoholic is a person who (drinks/is drinking) too much and can’t stop

………………………………………………………………

  1. What (are you looking/do you look) at? “A strange bird”.

……………………………………………………………….

  1. We usually (stay/are staying) with Peggy when we go to Chicago.
    …………………………………………………………….

  2. Nobody (gets/is getting) up early for fun.

……………………………………………………………….

  1. Not many passenger planes (fly/are flying) faster than sound.

……………………………………………………………….

Упражнение 2. Поставьте глагол в нужное время (Present Progressive or Present Simple)


  1. I (think)……………………………………..he’s away.



  1. You (know)…………………………………….what I (mean)…

…………………………………………………………………..

  1. We (always start)……………………………….at nine.



  1. While the butter (melt)…………………………………………..

you(take)………………………………….three eggs and (break)

…………………………………..them into a bowl.



  1. I (think)…………………….about your father.



  1. Scientists (believe)…………………………………………………

the weather (change)……………………………………………….

  1. I (not see)…………………………………………………..what the

problem is.



  1. Why (you look)………………………………………at me like this

9. Now I………………………………………(understand) what she wants.


THE PAST PROGRESSIVE AND PAST SIMPLE TENSE



Упражнение 3. Закончите предложения, употребив“did, was, were”.




  1. …………………………you working when I rang?

No, I…………………………………………n’t.



  1. …………………………you see me on television?

Yes, I…………………………….

  1. What…………………………you doing when they arrived?

I……………………………reading the paper.

  1. ………………………..they working hard?

No, they………………………..n’t.

  1. …………………………she crying when you saw her?

Yes, she……………………………………………….

  1. ……………………….they speak to you when you met?

No, they………………………………………….n’t

  1. Peter…………………………still lying in bed so he………

…………………..n’t hear the doorbell.

  1. …………………………the police find the man?

No, they…………………………….n’t

He…………………………hiding in an empty building.



  1. I……………………….looking for some photos when you rang but

I…………………………..n’t find them.

Упражнение 4. Закончите предложения, употребив глаголы в Past Progressive или Past Simple.




  1. They……………………………..for me when I…………………………

at the station (wait/arrive).

  1. She……………………….in the sea when I…………………………..her

(swim/see).

  1. ……………………..they…………………………tennis when it…………

……………………..raining?(play/start).



  1. She…………………….when she…………………….the news (cry/hear).



  1. We………………………home from the theatre when the police

…………………………us. (drive/stop)

  1. Everyone………………………quiet when the concert…………………..

……………………..(go/begin).

  1. When she………………………..him, he…………………………………

quite ill. (leave/become)

  1. You……………………….in a restaurant when I first……………………..

……………..you (work/meet).

  1. I…………………………..very angry when I………………………………

the letter (feel/read).

  1. It………………………………when I………………………….(rain/get).


PRESENT PERFECT



Упражнение 5. Постройте предложения, поставив глагол в скобках
в форму
Present Perfect




  1. …………………………..to Rome? (you ever be)

Have you ever been to Rome?

  1. ………………………this film before. (I see)

I’ve seen this film before.

  1. ……………………….in an office. (she never work)



  1. ……………………….in an aeriplane. (I never be)



  1. ………………………..to Germany? (he ever be)



  1. ………………………..my parents? (you met)



  1. ………………………..in the theatre? (you ever work)



  1. ………………………..to all the cities of Europe. (she be)



  1. ………………………..this book. (I read)



  1. ………………………..that new film about aliens? (you see)



  1. ………………………..abroad. (we never be)



  1. ………………………..a British policeman before. (they never see)



  1. ………………………..in a foreign country? (they ever live)



  1. ………………………..the President. (they meet)



  1. ………………………..to Brazil. (I never be)


Упражнение 6. Закончите предложения, употребив приведенные


ниже глаголы в форме Present Perfect

break buy decide forget go go invite see not/see take tell

  1. ‘Can I have this newspaper?’ ‘Yes, I’ve finished with it.



  1. I………………………….some new shoes. Do you want to see them?



  1. ‘Where is Liz’ ‘She………………………………….out’.



  1. I’m looking for Paula. ……………………….you……………….her?



  1. Look! Somebody………………………that window.



  1. ‘Does Lisa know that you’re going away?’ ‘Yes, I………………..her.’



  1. I can’t find my umbrella. Somebody………………………………..it.



  1. I’m looking for Sarah. Where……………………she………………….?



  1. I know that woman but I……………………………………..her name.



  1. Sue is having a party tonight. She…………………….a lot of people.



  1. What are you going to do? ……………………you………………….?



  1. ‘Where are my glasses?’ ‘I don’t know. I………………………them.’

Упражнение 7. Закончите предложения, вставив already (I’ve already…) or yet (He hasn’t…yet) (They haven’t…yet)

  1. MARK: Let’s go to the new SpielmaN exibition at the Modern Art Museum.

JANE: I’ve already seen it. It’s not very good. (see)

  1. DAVID: Don’t forget to tell Mary the good news.

LIZ: I…………………………..and she was very happy.(tell)

  1. SUE: What does John say in his letter?

CHRIS: I don’t know. I………………………….I’ve been too busy. (read)

  1. TIM: Did Sue’s operation go well?

PAT: She………………………….. The hospitale were too busy. (have)

  1. JOHN: I enjoyed reading that novel by Sarah Dunmore. Is it her first book?

JILL: No, she…………………………….three, but I think this one is her best. (write)

  1. PETE: Is that your father’s new car?

PAUL: Yes, it arrived last week but he………………………..(drive).

  1. KATE: When are Tony and Chris going to sell their house?

MICK: They………………………. They’re moving to London next week.

(sell)

PRESENT PERFECT and PAST SIMPLE



Упражнение 8

(а). Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в требуемом времени (Present Perfect или Past Simple).

      1. I (read) that book. I’ve reade that book.



      1. She (go) home three days ago. She went home three days ago.



      1. I (met) Mr and Mrs Shelley. ……………………………………….



      1. She (start) school in 1984. ……………………………………………



      1. I (leave) the office early last night. …………………………………..



      1. He (see) the film. ……………………………………………………



      1. (You be) to Austria? ………………………………………………….



      1. (You see) the film on TV last night? …………………………………



      1. When (you arrive) in London? ………………………………………



      1. John (be) to Germany before. ……………………………………….



      1. (You read) this book before? ……………………………………….



      1. I (not see) him yesterday. …………………………………………..



      1. I never (go) anywhere by plane. ……………………………………..



14. (You hear) their new record? It’s the best they’ve ever made.

………………………………………………………………………..


15. I (not know) about the disco last night. ………………………………

(б) TAXI


Captain Ben Fawcett 0 has bought (buy) an unusual taxi and I______________

(begin) a new service. The ‘taxi’ is a small Swiss aeroplane called a ‘Pilatus Porter’. This wonderful plane can carry seven passengers. The most surprising thing about it, however, is that it can land anywhere: on snow, water, or even on a ploughed field. Captain’s Fawcett’s first passenger 2_______________(be) a doctor who 3________________(fly) from Birmingham to a lonely village in the Welsh mountains. Since then, Captain Fawcett 4____________________(fly) passengers to many unusual places. Once he 5________________ (land) on the roof of a block of flats and on another occasion, he 6_________________(land) in a deserted car park. Captain Fawcett 7___________________ (just/refuse) a strange request from a businessman. The man 8_________________(want) to fly to Rockall, a lonely island in the Atlantic Ocean, but Captain Fawcett 9_________________ (not/take) him because the trip 10_____________(be) too dangerous.



(в) 1. Betty wrote/has written her test yesterday.

……………………………………………



  1. She was/has been to London four times.

……………………………………………

  1. I don’t know this man. I never met/have met him.

…………………………………………….

  1. We travel/have travelled to lots of countries.

……………………………………………..

  1. Mrs Green worked/has worked in the office for 25 years. And she is still working.

………………………………………………………………………………

  1. I met/have met in Oxford Street two days before.

…………………………………………………

  1. She rang/has rung her boss yesterday.

………………………………………………….

  1. Sheila went/has gone to the market at 8 o’clock in the morning.

…………………………………………………………………

  1. David saw/has seen this play before.

………………………………………………………………….

  1. Lorna read/has read the letter already.

…………………………………………………………………..

PRESENT PERFECT with FOR & SINCE


Упражнение 9. Употребите в предложениях Present Perfect, выбрав правильный предлог (since или for).

  1. I’ve worked here (for/since) six years.

I’ve worked here for six years.

  1. I’ve worked in the factory (for/since) 1970.

…………………………………………….

  1. He’s been abroad (for/since) five years.

…………………………………………….

  1. I studied French (for/since) twelve years.

…………………………………………….

  1. I’ve known her (for/since) 1982.

…………………………………………….

  1. I’ve lived here (for/since) I was a child.

…………………………………………….

  1. We’ve been in Paris (for/since) we were married.

…………………………………………….

  1. I’ve known them (for/since) years.

…………………………………………….

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE or FUTURE SIMPLE


Упражнение 10. Поставьте глагол в скобках в форму

Future Progressive or Future Simple

  1. You’ve just missed the last train. Never mind, I (walk)……………..

…………………………………………………………………………

  1. I’ll ring you tomorrow at six. No, don’t ring at six, I (bath)…………

…………………………………………………………………………

  1. Mother: Your face is dirty.

Child: All right, I (wash)……………………………………………

  1. Will you have lunch with me on the 24th?

I’d love to, but I’m afraid I (go)……………………………………….

my exam then.



  1. Why did you take his rasor? He (look)…………………………………

……………….for it everywhere tomorrow.

  1. I hope you’ll do well in the race tomorrow I (think)……………………

……………………of you.

  1. I don’t feel well enough to go to the station to meet him.

I (meet)………………………………him for you.

But how I (recognize)……………………………………………….him?

He’s small and fair, and he (wear)………………………………………

a black and white school cap.



  1. - You’ve left the light on.

- Oh, so I have. I (go)………………………………..and turn it off.

  1. This time next Monday I (sit)…………………………………………….

in a Paris café reading le Figaro.

- You (not read)…………………………………………………………..

You’ll be looking at all the pretty girls.


  1. - Waiter, this plate is dirty.

- I’m sorry, sir, I (bring)…………………………………………………

you another one.


ALREADY, STILL, YET



Упражнение 11. Вставьте “still, yet or already”.



  1. Are you in the same job?

………………………………………………………….

  1. He’s seventeen, but he’s married.

………………………………………………………….

  1. 9 am. and it’s dark!

………………………………………………………….

  1. 4 p.m. and it’s dark!

………………………………………………………….

  1. Look, it’s raining.

………………………………………………………….

  1. Our old car runs OK.

………………………………………………………….

  1. Is the rice cooked?

………………………………………………………….

  1. Is she in that little flat?

………………………………………………………….

  1. Why are you in bed?

………………………………………………………….

  1. I’m bored with my new job.

………………………………………………………….

  1. It’s not time to stop.

………………………………………………………….

Упражнение 12. Ответьте на вопросы, используя “already, still, yet”:

  1. What time is John arriving?

He’s…………………………………………………here.

  1. I want to see Julia.

Is she at home? Yes, but it’s too late, and she is…………………………

in bed.


  1. Does Paul know about the meeting?

No, he………………………………………………………………………

  1. Are you free now?

No, I am………………………………………………….working.

  1. Is Diana at home?

No, she isn’t………………………………………………………………..

  1. Shall I tell you what happened?

No, I……………………………………………………………know.

  1. Are you looking for a job?

Yes, I ………………………………………………………………………

  1. Do you live in Clare street now?

Yes, I……………………………………………………………………….

A, AN, SOME, ANY, MUCH, MANY, A LOT OF, (A) LITTLE, (A) FEW

Упражнение 13. Закончите предложения, используя a, an, some, any

  1. Would you like………………………………….cup of tea?



  1. There is………………………………………..butter in the fridge.



  1. Can I make…………………………………..telephone call?



  1. There weren’t……………………………….books in the house.



  1. There are…………………………….children at the door.



  1. She wants…………………………….glass of water.



  1. They don’t have………………………….friends in the village.



  1. I bought…………………………….lemonade yesterday.



  1. She’d like………………………………..new perfume.



  1. We’re getting……………………………new car soon.



  1. There isn’t…………………………..shampoo in the bathroom.



  1. I’d like………………………………..apple, please.



  1. Would you like……………………………tea?



  1. He is…………………………….engineer.


Упражнение 14. Выберите правильный вариант и подчеркните его




  1. Have you got (some/any)………………time free on Wednesday afternoon?



  1. (Some/any)……………of Laura’s friends were at the party yesterday.



  1. I had three sets of house keys, and I don’t see (some/any)…………..of them



  1. Do you know if (some/any)…………….of the Morrises are coming on Sunday?



  1. Can I get you (some/any)…………………coffee?



  1. If there’s (some/any) ………………soup left, put it in the fridge, please.

Упражнение 15. Закончите предложения, используя much, many, a lot of

  1. There isn’t…………………..information in the book.



  1. We saw………………..beatiful birds on the walk.



  1. I don’t know………………people here. Do you?



  1. There were………………….phone calls this morning.



  1. We couldn’t go to a restaurant because I ddidn’t have ………………

money with me.

  1. There aren’t………………tourists here this year.



  1. I don’t have breakfast before work, but I drink………………..tea.



  1. Do you smoke……………….cigarettes?



  1. How…………….money did you spend?



  1. She’s ill and she’s not eating……………….food.



  1. We bought…………………fruit but no vegetables.

Упражнение 16. Закончите предложения, употребив a few or a little

  1. I took……………..books with me to read on holiday.



  1. Can I have just……………….juice, please?



  1. Was there any food at the party? Yes, there was…………………



  1. Did you take any photographs at the wedding?

Yes, I took…………………….

  1. I met……………..friends for a meal in town.



  1. I’m not a vegetarian but I only eat……………. meat.



  1. ……………..flowers are starting to come up in the garden.



  1. I bought…………………new cassettes with my birthday money.



  1. Have you got any money with you?

I’ve got……………………………

  1. Is there any soap in the bathroom?

Yes, there is………………………

Упражнение 17. Выберите правильный вариант и подчеркните его




  1. There are (a few/a little) grapes in the fridge.



  1. Have you got (some/any) butter.



  1. She’s got (a lot of/a little) friends at school.



  1. I met (some/any) friends of yours last night.



  1. How (much/many) paper do you want?



  1. Do you write (much/many) papers?



  1. She speaks (a few/a little) Arabic.



  1. I don’t have (much/many) homework to do tonight.



  1. Have you got (some/any) spaghetti?

Yes, but not (much/many).

  1. I like fruit juice, but I don’t drink (much/many) milk.


Упражнение 18. Дополните предложения, используя модальные глаголы must, can, cant, couldnt и указанные глаголы (eat, decide, find, go, go)




  1. I was tired but I couldn’t sleep.



  1. I wasn’t hungry yesterday. I……………………………..my dinner.



  1. Ann doesn’t know what to do. She………………………………….



  1. I wanted to speak to Martin yesterday but I……………………….him.



  1. Jim…………………………..to the concert next Saturday. He has to work.



  1. Paula……………………to the meeting last week. She was ill.

Complete these sentences. Use can’t or couldn’t + one of these verbs:

(find, hear, see, speak)

  1. I’m sorry but we cann’t come to your party next Saturday.



  1. I like this hotel room. You………………..the mountains from the window.



  1. You are speaking very quietly. I……………………………..you.



  1. Have you seen my bag? I……………………………..it.



  1. Catherine got the job because she………………………….five languages.

Complete the sentences. Use must + one of these verbs:

(be, go, learn, meet, wash, win)

  1. We must go to the bank today. We haven’t got any money.



  1. Marilyn is a very interesting person. You…………………………her.



  1. My hands are dirty. I………………………….them.



  1. You……………………….to drive. It will be very useful.



  1. I……………………….to the post office. I need some stamps.



  1. The game tomorrow is very important for us. We………………………



  1. You can’t always have things immediately. You………………….patient.

Упражнение 19. Вставьте модальные глаголы may (might) или can (could)

1.…………….I use your pen? 2. ……………….I find a pen on that table? 3. You…………….read this book: you know the language well enough. 4. You……………take this book: I don’t need it. 5. …………….I help you? 6. ……………..I ask you to help me? 7. ………………you help me? 8. I……………..not imagine her speaking in public: I knew that she was so shy. 9. Something was wrong with the car: he………………..not start it.


10. A fool………………..ask more questions than a wise man…………….answer. 11. She asked me if she…………………….use my telephone. 12. The school was silent: nothing………………be heard in the long dark corridors. 13. Waiting……………….be endless, you know. 14. …………..………you tell me the nearest way to the city museum? 15. They…………………think that I am too weak to take part in the excursion, but I am strong enough to do any kind of hard worik, indeed. 16. He knew this period of history very well: he had read everything on the subject he………………….. find in the rich university library.

Упражнение 20. Переведите предложения на русский язык

  1. You must learn all these new words.

…………………………………………

  1. I can’t translate the text myself. I need your help.

……………………………………………………

  1. You needn’t translate the sentences.

………………………………………

  1. May I ask you to wait a little? I am not yet ready.

……………………………………………………

  1. You needn’t go there today.

…………………………….

  1. You should work hard and be more attentive.

………………………………………………

  1. You must bring me my text-book today. But you needn’t come very early.

………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Can you speak English well? – No, I am afraid, I can’t. I must work hard at it.

………………………………………………………………………………..



  1. May I smoke here? – Excuse me, but you mustn’t. You should go out and

smoke in the yard.

……………………………………………………………………………….


Раздел II. Тексты по экономической тематике


TEXT 1. Прочитайте текст, поставьте вопросы к подчеркнутому предложению, ответьте на вопросы
SBS

SBS stands for Siemens Business Services. It is a division of a famous German company Siemens. It is only about five years old but is already respobnsible for a considerable part of Siemens’s turnover. How? Siemens had an idea in 1995. A whole department of Siemens was at the time responsible for informationn and communication activities of the company. The idea was to offer this service not only inside the company but outside too. SBS is now one of the world’s leading providers in the area of business solutions and services.

Friedrich Froeschl is the CEO and SBS is now an independent division with 33.000 employees in 88 countries and turnover of 5.8 billion. One of its largest customers is the British Government. SBS organizes and managers the passports and national savings accounts for Britain. In Europe its main competitors are IBM, Cap Gemini, and EDS. With growth in this market of at least 15% the future looks bright for this German service company.

  1. What does SBS stand for?

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  1. How old is the company?

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  1. Who is its largest customer?

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  1. What does SBS organize and manage?

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TEXT 2. Переведите текст на русский язык устно. Поставьте вопросы к

подчеркнутому предложению. Найдите в тексте неправильные

глаголы и дайте их основные формы

THE EXPO OF THE CENTURY IN SEVILLE

King Juan Carlos of Spain opened Expo’92, the largest universal exposition of the 20th century, in April 1992. It cost $285 million, and it celebrated the 500th annuversary of Christopher Columbus’s discovery of America, and five centuries of scientific and technological progress.



Spain chose the small island near Seville as the location of Expo’92 because of historical links with Columbus. People believe that he spent ten years of his life in the beautiful monastery on the island and wrote four autobiographical books there.

With the choice of Seville for Expo’92, Spain decided on a major investment project in Andalucia. The construction work for this projet took ten years and employed over 20,000 workers. It cost $7,5 billion and provided new motorways, a high-speed rail link to Madrid, and a very modern telecommunications system. Seville got new hotels and flats, a new international airport, and its first opera house.



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THE LEVI’S STORY

Levi’s make the most famous and popular trousers in the world. They are made of very strong cotton which originally camne from Nimes in France. “De Nimes” became denim.

Levi Strauss was a German immigrant who arrived in San Francisco in 1853. First, he made tents for gold prospectors. Then, he started to make trousers from the same material. In 1873, Levi’s dyed the trousers blue. Levi’s headquarters today is still in San Francisco and, in 1993, they sold 50 million pair of their “501” blue jeans.

The company was not always successful. In the 198os, they had problems but they changed management and, in 1985, Bob Haas became President of the company. With large investment in marketing and advertising, Levi’s relaunched the original 501 jeans. The campaign was a huge success. In Great Britain the advertising was so successful that sales of 501 jeans rose by 800%!

Today, about 16,000,000 pairs of 501 jeans are sold in Western Europe and they are all made in factories in Scotland and France. More than half of Levi’s profits come from exports.

The factory in France employs about 540 people who produce 18,000 pairs of jeans per day. With thirty-five factories in the US, Levi’s is a major employer, particularly in the South. Unfortunately, because Levi’s are such a popular product there are many “pirate” copies made also. In 1993, for example, police throughout the world found 2,000,000 fake pairs of Levi’s jeans.



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SWIFT AND BANKS

SWIFT, the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications, is a


non-profit making bank-owned, cooperative society. It was set up in Brussels in 1973 and now it has more than a thousand member banks in more than fifty countries including our country. Vnesheconombank has been a member bank since 1987.

SWIFT is a service organisation which processes and transmits banking transactions electronically between member banks on all the five continents.

Electronic systems transfer large sums around the world quickly and effectively. In this way aternational banking is being established.

But payment procedures in international trade still rely heavily on paper-based documents. And specialists say that one day all the data of invoices, shipping documents, various recepts and other documents will be provided in computer form instead. No paper documents will be used any longer. All the information will be sent electronically.

This will certainly lead to a lot of technical problems.

Раздел III. Тексты по юридической тематике




TEXT 1. Переведите на русский язык

AN ARREST

Without question, the police play an important role in protecting citizens from crime. They have special powers to do it. Police have the power to investigate, which often means to stop and question persons, to arrest criminals and many others. Society gives to police the right to use force if necessary. We shall discuss now the problems of arrest.

What is an arrest? When is person “under arrest”? Are you under arrest only if the police officer says that you are? If the police stop you in the street and ask you to explain why you are there and what you are doing, are you under arrest? If a police officer asks you to follow him to the police station, are you under arrest?

These are difficult questions to answer. The answers are not clear and are discussed among police officers and judges. Basically there are two views. Some say that a person is arrested the moment the police officer comes up to him and restrains his freedom to walk away. Others say that an arrest is an intent of the police officer to take a person to the police station to charge him with crime. What do you think?



    1. to restrain freedom - ограничить свободу

    2. an intent - намерение

    3. to charge with a crime - обвинить в преступлении

TEXT 2. Переведите на русский язык.

THE WORK OF MILITIA

Our militia was created by the working people to protect their rights. The officers of our militia have always displayed courage and heroism in the fight against enemies of our state during the Great Patriotic War as well as in the years of peaceful construction.

The main aim of militia has always been to maintain public order, to protect state and personal property and safeguard the rights of our citizens. Nowadays great attention in the work of militia is paid to prevention of crime, to its suppression. But if a crime has been committed, the militia officers are to solve the crime as quickly as possible. To fulfil these tasks the organs of internal affairs are composed of different departments.

The Criminal Detection Department is one of the most compli-cated militia services. The main responsibility of the officer of the Criminal Detection Department is to detect the criminal, that is to locate and apprehend him. In many cases the detective must trace a fugitive who is hiding.

The officers of the Criminal Investigation Department collect facts to prove the guilt or innocence of the suspect. The final test of a criminal investigation is in presentation of evidence in court. Corpus delict8i must be established, the defendant must be identified and associated with the crime scene. The investigator must also provide competent witnesses.

Economic Crimes Department fights against those who don’t want to live an honest life. The responsibility of the officers of this Department is to reveal the criminal activity of those who commit embezzlement and other economic crimes, bring them to justice.

The State Auto-Inspection is responsible for traffic regulation and safety on the roads.

The Transport Militia maintains law and order on the railway, air lines and water ways of the country.

The Juvenile Inspection handles “difficult” juveniles and their careless parents. They also do much work to prevent juvenile delinquency.

The Correctional System is supposed to rehabilitate offenders through labour. This is the purpose of correctional establishments.

A new service for the fight against organized crime has been created in our militia. Organized crime operates on fear, bribery and force. Militia officers of organized crime department are devoting their efforts to collect sufficient evidence to bring gang leaders to justice.

TEXT 3. Переведите на русский язык и ответьте на вопросы

A SYSTEM OF CHECKS AND BALANCES

The first European settlers who came to America wanted a political system that offered stability but limited the power of individuals, so they set up a democratic system.

The American democratic government was established in March 1789 in the Constitution of the United States. In this system, rights and powers are divided between the individual states and the central – or federal – government. The federal government has three branches: the executive, the legislaturem and the judiciary. The power of each branch is carefully balanced by the powers of each of the others.

The Constitution has been changed twenty-six times since 1789. Ten admendments in the Bill of Rights (1791) guaranteed the basic rights of individual Americans. The other sixteen amendments include ones banning slavery (1865) and giving women the right to vote (1920).

Each of the fifty states also has its own government, with a governor, a legislative assembly, and a judiciary. US citizens must be eighteen years okd to vote. Each state also has its own constitution, but all states must respect federal laws.


  1. What are the basic principles of a democratic society?

  2. What sort of amendments have been made to American Constitution since 1789?

TEXT 4. POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE USA

The two leading national parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Other smaller parties, such as the Libertarian Party and the Labor Party, do not play a role in national politics.

The United States is such a large and diverse country that it is difficult to label American parties as conservative or liberal. A Democrat from Nebraska probably has quite different views from a Democrat in Florida or New York, but on the whole, Democrats are thought of as more progressive than Republicans.

The major political parties have less power than in some countries, because many voters will vote for an individual candidate rather than for the party that candidate represents. Elected officials do not have to support their party’s program if they do not agree with it.

Presidential candidates are nominated at the Republican and the Democratic conventions. These take place after the candidates have toured the country making speeches and running in primary elections in many states.

The results of the primary elections indicate if a candidate has enough support to be the candidate of his or her party.

What words in the text are synonyms to the following:


    1. different, varied;

    2. a word or a phrase applied to a person or a group of people which sometimes may be not true

TEXT 5. PARLIAMENT IN THE UK

Parliament in the United Kingdom is based on the principle that the people of the country hold ultimate power. They can exercise this power at least every five years, by voting for the person that they want to represent them in parliament, and by voting in a Government. The Government is made up of around 100 people from the ruling party, chosen by the Prime Minister. The most senior members of the Government are called the Cabinet.

The Government – the elected party – makes all important decisions about how the country is run. However, these decisions have to be approved by parliament, which has the power to force the Government to change its mind when necessary.

It is the job of parliament to make sure that the Government is working properly and in the public interest. Parliament is made up of three institutions: the House of Commons, which has 651 elected representatives called Members of Parliament (or MPs); the House of Lords, which is an unelected second chamber; and the monarchy: the King or Queen.

Every Member of Parliament, no matter what political party he or she belongs to, has to examine the work of the Government. The opposition, which consists of all those parties which are not part of the Government, plays the leading part in this.
Answer the questions:

1. What are the main criteria for the work of the Parliament?

2. How many people actually rule the country?

TEXT 6. THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT AND THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM
The British Parliament consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons and the Queen as its head.

The House of Commons plays the major role in law-making. It consists of Members of Parliament (called MPs for short), each of whom represents an area in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. MPs are elected either at a general election, or at a by-election following the death or retirement of an MP.

Parliamentary elections must be held every five years, but the Prime Minister can decide on the exact date within those five years. The minimum voting age is 18, and the voting is taken by secret ballot.

The election campaign lasts about three weeks. The election is decided on a simple majority – the candidate with the most votes wins. An MP who wins by a small number of votes may have more votes against him (that is, for the other candidates) than for him. Many people think that it is unfair because the wishes of those who voted for the unsuccessful candidates are not represented at all.

The British parliamentary system depends on political parties. The political parties choose candidates in elections. The party which wins the majority of seats forms the Government and its leader usually becomes Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister chooses about 20 MPs from his or her party to become the Cabinet of Ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular area of the government.



The second largest party becomes the official opposition with its own leader and “Shadow cabinet”. Leader of the opposition is a recognized post in the House of Commons.