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КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №1

Для того чтобы выполнить задание №1, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы грамматики:

1. степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

2. вопросы к членам предложения

3. видовременные формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future), Present Perfect (Present, Past, Future), Continuous (Present, Past, Future)

4. формы инфинитива

5. модальные глаголы can, must, may и их эквиваленты, модальный глагол should
Степени сравнения прилагательных




сравнительная

превосходная

односложные

young, big, short



younger, bigger, shorter

youngest, biggest, shortest

прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на –y

lovely, pretty, fann



lovelier, prettier, funnier

loveliest, prettiest, funniest

двусложные прилагательные

more pleasant

more annoyed

more modern

more careful

more careless

most pleasant

most annoyed

most modern

most careful

most careless

многосложные прилагательные

more expensive

more attractive

more exciting

more intelligent

most expensive

most attractive

most exciting

most intelligent

good, bad, far

better, worse, further/farther

best, worst, furthest/farthest

Степени сравнения наречий







сравнительная

превосходная

наречия, оканчивающиеся на  ly

carefully

quickly


more carefully

more quickly



most carefully

most quickly



наречия, имеющие ту же форму, что и прилагательные

fast

hard


early

faster

harder


earlier

fastest

hardest


earliest




badly

well


little

much


worse

better


less

more


worst

best


least

most

В предложениях со степенями сравнения прилагательных и наречий используются следующие союзы и способы выражения сравнения:
as…as, the…the, much, less, more, a bit, far

You walk as fast as you brother does.

The harder I try, the worse I seem to do.

She woks harder than I do.

This actress is less famous than that one.

It’s getting more and more difficult to find a quiet beach.


Времена действительного залога
Active voice

I

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Время (характеристика)

Действие как факт (обычное, постоянное, повторяющееся)

Действие как процесс (незаконченный, длящийся)

Действие, предшествующее какому-то моменту

Present

Ask 

Asks
Спрашиваю (вообще, всегда, обычно)



Am asking

Are asking

Is asking

Спрашиваю (сейчас)



Have asked

Has asked


Уже спросил

Past

Asked
Спросил, спрашивал (когда-то)

Was asking

Were asking

Спрашивал (в тот момент)


Has asked
Уже спросил (к тому моменту)

Future

Shall ask

Will ask


Спрошу

Shall be asking

Will be asking

Буду спрашивать (в тот момент)


Shall have asked

Will have asked

Уже спрошу (к тому моменту)




Формы инфинитива

Indefinite infinitive

(to) do

continuous infinitive

(to) be doing

perfect infinitive

(to) have done

perfect continuous infinitive

(to)have been doing

Indefinite passive infinitive

(to) be done

perfect passive infinitive

(to) have been done


Модальные глаголы



модальный глагол

модальное значение

примеры

can (could) эквивалент to be able to

1. способность, возможность, умение

2. сомнение, предложение



He can speak English

Can you do it? She couldn’t come.

You will be able to come tomorrow.

It can rain.

Can they be home?


may(might) эквивалент to be allowed to 

1. возможность, разрешение

2. сомнение, предположение



May I come in? – Yes, you may. She might go for a walk.

The children will be allowed to swim if the weather is warm.


It may rain. They may come soon.

must
mustn’t

1. необходимость 

2. предположение, уверенность


3. запрещение

You must know the subject.

He must try to do the work.


She must be still working. This must be your coat.
You mustn’t go out today.

have to

необходимость, вызванная обстоятельствами

I have to get up very early.

Do you have to work hard?

We didn’t have to wait.


should

желательность действия, совет

You should follow my advice.

You shouldn’t miss classes.



to be

необходимость, связанная с договоренностью или планом

He is to arrive on Monday. Am I to come at 5?

The meeting is to last three hours.



needn’t =don’t

have to

отсутствие необходимости

You needn’t do it now. = You don’t have to do it now.

He needn’t buy the tickets. = He doesn’t have to buy them.




ВАРИАНТ №1

I.Спишите текст, поставив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени. Выберите правильный вариант. Впишите ответы в таблицу после текста.

LONDON — The proud male automotive ego just got a body blow from a new study by a U.K. insurance company. It turns out that men have 1…… (big) car crashes that cost more money 2 … … (than\then) women, according to research by Elephant.co.uk.

The study provides 3…… (many) evidence that, despite common male wisdom, men aren't 4……..(good) drivers than women. The research also reflects the findings of countless other studies, as well as U.S. fatality statistics provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration that show consistently 5…… (high) fatalities year after year among male drivers versus female drivers.

The study looked at 6…… (many) than 200,000 insurance claims and found that 7…… (most\most of) accidents involving men under 25 cost on average 15 percent more 8 ……. (than\then) those involving women of the same age.

British insurer Elephant.co.uk says that the cost of accidents involving male drivers of all ages is 9…… (more\much) higher than accidents involving women.



Впишите ответы в таблицу:

0. stronger

6.

1. 

7. 

2. 

8. 

3.

9. 

4.

10.

5. 






II. Используя вопросительные слова, составьте такие специальные вопросы, чтобы следующие предложения были ответом на них. Напишите вопросы.
1. As a solicitor in a large company, I spend a lot of time preparing briefs for barristers.

How much ………………………………………………………………………...?

2. If a US President resigns or becomes permanently disabled, the Vice President takes over his duties until the next election. Who………………………………………………………………………………....?

3. For the most history punishment has been both painful and public in order to act as deterrent to others. .

Why………………………………………………………………………………..?

4. The US Congress consists of two houses: the House of Representatives and the Senate. The proposed legislation usually starts in the House of Representatives.

Where ……………………………………………………………………………..?

5. Hammurabi, a king of Babylonia, drew up the most detailed ancient legal code in 1758.

When ………………………………………………………………………………?
III. Спишите текст, поставив глаголы в нужной форме. Подчеркните сказуемое. Впишите ответы в таблицу после текста.
Last week police 1… (arrest) John Brown. They 2… (suspect) him of being the leader of a gang of robbers who 3… (steal) art treasures from museums and homes since last January. Prior to his arrest, Brown 4… (spend) two years in prison for theft. They 5… (release) him only 10 months ago. The police 6… (try) to find the gang’s hideout for months. They feel sure they 7… (arrest) the rest of the gang by the end of the month. This 8… (be) the biggest art theft operation to be uncovered since 1974 when the police 9… (catch) a gang which 10… (steal) over a million pounds worth of paintings from galleries all over the country.

Впишите ответы в таблицу:

0. defined - past indefinite

6.

1. 

7. 

2. 

8. 

3.

9. 

4.

10.

5. 






IV. Спишите предложения, вставив вместо пропусков один из модальных глаголов в нужном времени, а где это необходимо – его эквивалент. Некоторые предложения могут быть отрицательными.

Впишите ответы в таблицу после текста.
1. Anyone … bring a lawsuit against someone else if they feel they have suffered a wrong that cannot be settled easily.

2. A barrister … not work in a court without a brief from a solicitor.

3. The publisher … get the Proprietors’ consent in writing beforehand.

4. People … learn more about their rights so that they know what laws protect them from abuse.

5. Some companies … be subject to enormous claims.

6. Self-employed barristers work in offices called chambers, and have their own office or share one with other barristers

7. In Europe, most countries insist that the citizens who keep wealth outside the territory where they live will … to pay tax on it, sooner or later.
Впишите ответы в таблицу. Обоснуйте выбор:

0. might сомнение

4.

1. 

5. 

2. 

6. 

3. 

7. 


V. Спишите предложения, выбрав верную форму инфинитива. Подчеркните инфинитив. Впишите ответы в таблицу после текста.
1. A new discovery must … by a patent.

a) be protected b) have been protected c) to be protected

2. You can't … every contract you come across, but for the most important ones - employment, living arrangements, even medical treatment, be sure to have an attorney review it before signing.

a) read b) be reading c) have read

3. The policeman asked me … specific, because interpreting unclear language could lead to a lawsuit.

a) be b) to be c) to have been

4. There will be attempts … fraudulent trading.

a) to be preventing b) to prevent c) to be prevented

5. …the same mistake twice was unforgivable.

a) To be made b) To make c) To have made

6. It occurred to me that he was trying … something.

a) to be concealing b) to conceal c) to have concealed

7. No one would rather … this building without the permission of the police.

a) to leave b) leave c) to have left



Впишите ответы в таблицу:

0. to inherit

4.

1. 

5. 

2. 

6. 

3.

7. 



VI. Изучите содержание текста, обращая внимание на выделенные слова.
English courts

We can use the English system as an example of how courts relate to one another.

In general, the division between civil and criminal law is reflected in this system. The Crown Courts, for example, deal exclusively with criminal matters, the County Courts, with civil. However, the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court considers appeals from lower criminal courts, as well as civil matters, and the Magistrates' Courts, while mostly concerned with criminal cases, also deal with some civil matters. The highest court, the House of Lords, deals with all matters (including appeals from Scottish and Northern Irish courts).

A criminal case usually begins in a Magistrates’ Court. Having arrested someone suspected of committing a crime, the police must decide if they have enough evidence to make a formal accusation, or charge. If they charge the suspect, they may release him on the condition that he appear on a certain date at a certain Magistrates’ Court. This is known as unconditional bail. However, the police may instead take the suspect to a magistrate so that he remains in custody until he next appears before a court. The magistrate may decided that it is not necessary to hold the suspect in custody and may agree to unconditional bail, or the magistrate may grant conditional bail—that is, release the suspect provided that he puts up some money as security or agrees to surrender his passport or some similar condition. As the lowest criminal court, a Magistrates’ Court is empowered to hear certain cases only. Some minor cases, such as parking violations, are dealt with only by the magistrates. Some serious crimes, like murder, cannot be heard by the magistrates and must go to the Crown Courts. And there are some offences where the defendant is given the choice of having his case heard in the Magistrates Court or the Crown Court. It takes much longer to have a case heard in the Crown Court, but some defendants prefer it because the facts of the case are decided by a jury, that is, ordinary members of the public.

In a Crown Court trial there are twelve jurors. These are ordinary members of the public between the ages of 18 and 70 who are selected at random. They are not paid but are given expenses while they are on jury service, which is usually for about two weeks. Service is compulsory, and it cannot normally be avoided without a good reason, such as illness. It is not necessary for a juror to know anything about the law—indeed certain people connected with the world of law, such as solicitors, are not allowed to serve as jurors. This is because the job of the jury is to listen to the case and to decide questions of fact. It is the judge's responsibility to guide them on questions of law.

This contrast between law and fact is very important. If a man is on trial for murder, for example, the judge will explain just what the crime of murder means in English law and what the prosecution has to prove. He will explain how the trial will be conducted, summarize the evidence, and tell the jurors what factors they should consider in making their decision. These are questions of law. However, whether the defendant did in fact commit murder or not is a question of fact to be decided by the jurors themselves. It is necessary for at least ten of the twelve to agree.


1. Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту:

1. How is the division between civil and criminal law reflected in the system of English courts?

2. What is the lowest court in England?

3. What is unconditional bail?

4. Which are questions of law and which are questions of fact?

a. whether an alibi can be believed.

b. whether killing a cat is a crime.

c. whether a guilty defendant should be imprisoned.


2.Спишите и переведите письменно следующие слова и словосочетания:

1. civil law

2. a Crown Court

3. a Country Court

4. a Magistrates Court

5. to suspect smb of smth

6. evidence

7. to charge smb with smth

8. unconditional bail

9. to be in custody



10. an offence

11. a jury


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